East Europe

Eastern Europe

Countries Contaminated


Terrain Types Containing Mines

Rolling Hills and Plains

  • agricultural "arable"
  • rivers and swamps interspersed
  • soil: silt and clay
  • <10% slope

Forests (hills, mountains)

  • 10-30% slope
  • often rocky and dense
  • deciduous


  • either densely wooded or plains that are steep and rocky with loose soil
  • 30% slope or greater
  • rocky


  • alongside roads
  • in ditches
  • near or around destroyed bridges
  • oftentimes "obvious" minefield - The layers want others to know the mines are there.
  • metal contamination

General Climate: 4 seasons


  • 0 degrees C
  • snow coverage typical and throughout the winter
  • generally less precipitation
  • few hours of sunlight


  • rapid and short
  • variable growth


  • 30 degrees C
  • generally dryer
  • flooding along rivers and swamps


  • demining ceases by November
  • Leaf/branch fall can cause issues
  • medium precipitation

Precipitation chart on pinkbull: /2009 - 2010/Research/Landscape and Mobility/Articles

Adequate demining conditions for 1/2 to 2/3 of the year.


Balkan Terrain (shows type, military use)
Croatia overall

General Mobility Concerns:

Overgrowth and Clearing:

  • Fast growth in summer/rainy season
  • many fields are grown over by thick underbrush
  • Standard is to remove Everything to a certain depth
  • Many mine removal programs clear land but looking for a system that does not require land clearance

Obstacles: Small - medium obstacles (i.e. underbrush and bushes, rocks that are around 1-5" diameter) poses the largest problems for demining. The big stuff is easy to avoid or clear.


In general, minefield location is related to the history of conflict. In Eastern Europe, and especially in the Balkan peninusula, there has been much conflict among nations to define borders. Many mines are along older and newer borders. Examination of the maps (see below, croatian mine location vs. balkan terrain) suggests that mines are spread throughout all types of terrain.

Mines in arable land and plains

  • generally affect a larger population
  • hazard to farming communities and grazing animals
  • generally easier to get to (less vegetation, roads in place to get to minefields, location of minefields known)
  • Often times minefields are laid in swamps along rivers. These are not easy to get to but do pose a larger problem since they cut off water

Mines in forests

  • generally laid for military purpose: to keep troops from returning, around old military bases, don't affect as many people but much harder to locate
  • Hazard to forestation companies. (I.e. logging companies)
  • Soil is generally rocky
  • 10 to 30% slope make the use of machines difficult
  • generally dense Deciduous forest

Mines is Mountainous areas

  • have a small affect on general population
  • lots of room for improvement on demining and locating minefields
  • Minefields typically in "cover" areas, where troops might try to take cover while traversing —- Ditches, dry river beds

Mines in Urban areas

  • although these mines have greater potential to injure people most accidents still occur in agricultural areas.
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